Monthly Archives: June 2016

Let's Learn About What is an SRT File Extension and How to Open it?

SubRip, as the name suggests, extracts the timings and subtitles of video files. The resulting file has a .srt extension. These files have a text-based format, and thus, can be edited in most text editors, including Notepad and Wordpad.

A SubRip or .srt file is divided into multiple parts. Each of the division has an ID, subtitles, start time and end time, and a blank line. Subtitles refer to the text that should be displayed along with the video. The start and end time indicate the exact time at which the subtitle should be displayed. A blank line is used to shift the control to the next line, from where a new subtitle starts. SubRip files contain a filter too which helps in text extraction and preserving its inline format. This filter also manages the line-breaks between the text. A .srt file is a subtitle type of file format. The following are two examples of files with a .srt extension.

Structure I – Without Formatting

1
00:02:17,420 –> 00:02:20,355
Olaf: Some people are worth melting for.
[begins to melt, grabs his face to stay up]

2
00:02:20,476 –> 00:02:22,501
Olaf: Just… maybe not right this second.

Structure II – With Formatting

1
00:00:10,500 –> 00:00:13,000 X1:63 X2:223 Y1:43 Y2:58
Olaf: Some people are worth melting for.
[begins to melt, grabs his face to stay up]

2
00:00:15,000 –> 00:00:18,000 X1:53 X2:303 Y1:438 Y2:453
Olaf: Just… maybe not right this second.

In both the above .srt structures, numeric 1 and 2 indicate the ID. The next block contains the start and end time, followed by the subtitle text. Structure I contains simple text with no formatting. However, the text of structure II contains HTML formatting (italic, font color).

Consider the start and end time block from structure I.
00:02:17,420 –> 00:02:20,355
The block duration is the difference between these two values, which is equal to 00:00:02,935.

In order to run the .srt file along with its video/movie, make sure that both the video file and the .srt file have the same name, and are placed at the same location on your computer.

How to Open SRT File Format
Windows Media Player

Requirements: If you wish to play the video file with its subtitles in Windows Media Player, make sure you download the DirectVobSub codec from the Internet. Install the specific DirectVobSub version, which is apt for the Windows version on your computer.
On installation of DirectVobSub, run Windows Media Player.
Make sure both the video and .srt files have the same name and are placed in the same directory.
Run Windows Media Player and drag the video file into it.
Click on Play ➜ Captions & Subtitles ➜ On If Available.
Play the video/movie clip.
Tip: This method can be followed for Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, and all other versions of Windows.
VLC Player

Requirements: If you wish to play the video file with its subtitles in VLC player, make sure VLC player is installed on your computer.
Run VLC player. In the menu, click on Media ➜ Open File.
In the window that opens up, select the video file to be played.
On selecting the video/movie file, click on Open.
In the menu, click on Video ➜ Subtitles Track ➜ Open File.
In the window that opens up, select the .srt file for that video file.
On selecting the .srt file, click on OK.
Play the video/movie clip.
Opening/Editing .SRT File in Notepad
Right click on the .srt file ➜ click on Properties.
Select the General tab in the ‘titles properties’ window.
Click on Change button.
In the ‘Open With’ window that appears, select Notepad as the Recommended program ➜ check the box ‘Always use the selected program to open this kind of file’ ➜ click on OK.
Double-clicking the .srt file will now open it in notepad. It can be edited if desired.
Tip: The .srt file can be opened in Word too in place of Notepad. For opening the subtitle file in Microsoft Word, simply select Word as option in Step (iv).
For opening the .srt file on Linux Ubuntu, an application VideoLAN VLC Media Player could be used. Whereas, the programs for opening it on Mac OS X are VideoLAN VLC Media Player, SubCleaner, or any text editor.

Since an .srt file works with almost any type of player, simply download the player of your choice and link the .srt file to its respective video file. Remember that a .srt file merely contains text, no video data.
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-is-an-srt-file-extension-and-how-to-open-it.html

Learn About Optical Mark Recognition (OMR): Working Principle and Pros and Cons

Optical Mark Recognition is a technology that uses a special device called Optical Mark Reader to detect the presence or absence of marks on a specially printed paper called OMR form. This technology is usually used if bulks of data, especially answers to MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions), are to be gathered and processed in a short period of time. For instance, when the answer sheets of competitive exams held on a larger scale, need to be a evaluated within a few days’ time, OMR technology comes to help. In this Buzzle article, we will discuss what this technology is all about, along with its applications, and its pros and cons.

What is an Optical Mark Recognition?

It is the process of reading data from specialized forms and storing it into the computer system. The data to be interpreted is in the form of markings such as dashes, dots, ticks, darkened circles, etc. An OMR form is passed through an OMR reader, which identifies the marked areas, extracts the information, and stores it in separate files.

What is an Optical Mark Reader and How Does it Work?

Optical Mark Reader (OMR scanner) is a special scanning device used for the purpose of reading pencil marks made on pre-defined positions on the OMR form.

The working principle of optical mark recognition is based on the ‘Law of Reflection’, which states that ‘all reflected light obeys the relationship that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection’. This means that a lighter surface reflects more light than a darker one. Accordingly, the OMR scanner uses its sensors to detect the dark pencil-marked areas on the OMR form because they are less reflective than the unmarked areas. There are around 48 sensors which do this job. If the scanner senses a half-filled form, it’ll return an error or mark it as false (or wrong), else the information is converted into a computer data file.

What is an OMR Form?

An OMR form is a specialized form created specifically for the OMR system by special form-design software. The form comprises multiple-choice questions which are placed such that the circles provided for answers and the sensors on the scanner are in exact alignment. The number of columns on the form is equal to the number of sensors, i.e., 48, whereas the number of rows may vary from 53 to 80. One important feature of an OMR form is that it has timing tracks on one side of the form. A timing track is a rectangular block which acts as a pointer to a row on the form. The purpose of this block is to inform the scanner where to read for pencil marks.

Pros and Cons of Optical Mark Recognition

Pros
△ OMR is accurate in collecting data and interpreting on a simple Yes/No answer.

△ It eliminates the need for manual entry of data, and thereby minimizes the risk of human error.

△ It decreases the investment cost since only a single computer is needed to store the data.

△ OMR forms are easy to read since they are marked with a pencil. The simplicity aids in saving time and effort.

Cons
▽ If a mark is too light, the optical mark reader would be unable to read it.

▽ The OMR reader needs the answers on the forms to be identical to each other.

▽ The answer sheet can’t be torn or folded in any way. It should be clean or devoid of any dirt or marks. If the answer is incomplete, the scanner won’t be able to read it.

Uses

Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is used in applications consisting of large amounts of data. It is used extensively to process competitive exam results, or responses to feedback forms, survey forms, and questionnaires. It is also used at the state level to determine the election results. The areas where OMR is used are discussed below:

Consumer surveys
Consumer surveys are often conducted for market research by various companies. Since large volumes of data need to be collected and processed in this regard, the OMR technology is used.

Census Data Processing
OMR is used to scan geocodes to match any of the geocodes available in the master census geocode file. A geocode is a geographical co-ordinate that maps to a physical address, for instance, a postal code.

Test Sheets
Examination sheets used for competitive exams like SAT and GMAT are scanned using OMR technology. The results are calculated based on the markings on the sheet and compiled into a database.

Election Poll Results
OMR is also used to count votes in general elections. This helps curtail cheating methods of rigging the election and vote counting.

Inventory Count
Recent developments have introduced the concept of two-dimensional codes called bar codes. Warehouses and supermarkets use OMR technology to keep track of the products using these bar codes.

Lotteries
It’s used to mark numbers for reading the lucky lottery numbers.

These are some of the ways in which optical mark recognition makes our life easier. OMR technology was prevalent in the form of punch cards, but has retained its existence in the form of scanners. This just goes to prove that technology doesn’t fizzle out but evolves with us.

Learn More About Difference Between Hardware and Software

The very basic difference probably even a child would tell between software and hardware is that, the latter can be touched and are actual physical components of a device.

However, the former (software) is simply bits and bytes, and is completely intangible. It can also be called the digital component of a device. Even though the basic difference between them is quite clear to most of us, there are some more aspects about each, one should consider when reading about differences between the two.

Let’s do a hardware vs. software analysis and see what they are.

Hardware and Software: What is the Difference Between them?

What is Hardware?
Hardware is a physical entity, or something which is tangible. However, hardware isn’t of any use without proper software, and vice versa. For instance, a microwave oven won’t recognize Android, as it is necessarily meant for a mobile phone. Likewise, an operating system or application software is of no use without suitable hardware. In brief, hardware of any device includes wires, circuit boards, chips, internal circuits, and every minor thing required for an electronic device to function.

Types of Hardware
Hardware has three major types; first ― storage and memory, second ― circuits and other apparatus, and third ― housing and outer body. Let’s elaborate on all three.

The first type, storage and memory, is the storehouse for all software and digital data (documents, images, etc). It is the location which the machine uses to recollect all the stored information related to its own functioning, as well as the user’s data. The second type, circuits and other apparatus is actually the technical part of a machine. This type includes everything from wiring, processors, circuit boards, chips, display devices, speakers, microphones, and more; it is the core or powerhouse of a machine, without which it wouldn’t function. The third and the final type, the housing and outer body, is basically the panels and shells that hold all of this together. In some machines, this type also functions as an insulation in order to prevent the user from getting an electric shock.

What is Software?
The definition of a software is basically certain information or data used by a machine to perform the most rudimentary tasks required for it to function correctly. However, there are more complex software which apart from simply helping a machine to function, help execute varying task aimed to reduce human effort and increase efficiency.

Types of Software
If we wished to classify types of software into very basic categories, we would be left with three broad ones. System software, application software, and malicious software. Each have different functions to perform; system software could be called firmware in certain instances (however not always), it is a type of software that carries out the proper functioning of a machine by utilizing the available hardware. To break down the functions of system software, its functions include everything from running a machine, maintenance, and recovery.

System software include operating systems, device drivers, and other utility software required to assist the mainstream software to perform certain tasks. The second type, namely application software is as its name suggests, a software required to carry out certain user-centric tasks to minimize human effort and increase efficiency. Application software may or may not aid to functioning of a machine, however, they are more involved in carrying out user-specified tasks using the available resources.

Thirdly, malware is a machine’s enemy. It is aimed to disrupt the normal functioning of a machine, especially in case of computers.

Examples

By now, you must be very clear about the two concepts. Try thinking about examples for both; you could also refer to some common ones given below.
Hardware
Buttons and levers
LEDs
External wires
Connection ports
Casing and body
Internal circuit boards
Processing units
Internal wiring
Internal memory and storage devices
Software
Operating systems (Windows, OSX, Linux, Android, iOS, etc.)
Firmware
Word and data processing software (Microsoft Office)
Image processing software (Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, etc)
Internet browsers (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox)
Viruses and malware